Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name




First Advisor

Cramer, K.


Psychology, Social.




The present study investigated (a) whether participants with actual control report higher ratings of control, responsibility, influence, and lower ratings of helplessness over the outcome than participants with no control, and (b) whether participants with prediction report higher ratings of prediction over the outcome than participants with no prediction. Participants believed that as a test of concentration, visual acuity, and hand-eye coordination they would have to rewrite several pages of ambiguous letters for either a short time period (2 minutes) or a long time period (20 minutes). Some participants were asked to select (choice) between two envelopes containing cards indicating different time periods (control) or the same time period (no-control). Other participants had their envelope selected by the experimenter using a spinner (no choice). All participants knew if the cards contained different or same time periods. Once the envelope was selected but before the dependent variables were measured, some participants learned the time period they received, either short (Positive Outcome), or long (Negative Outcome); while others did not (No-Prediction). Results showed that participants with control and choice (regardless of prediction) indicated in a questionnaire higher ratings of control, responsibility, and influence, and less helplessness over the outcome than participants with (a) choice but no control, and (b) neither choice nor control, whose ratings did not significantly differ. Participants with choice but no control felt equivalently as helpless as those with no control and no choice. Participants with prediction (Positive or Negative Outcome) did not have higher ratings of prediction than participants with no prediction.Dept. of Psychology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2001 .L36. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-03, page: 0792. Adviser: Kenneth Cramer. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2001.