Single server retrial queueing models.

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name



Mathematics and Statistics






Most retrial queueing research assumes that each retrial customer has its own orbit, and the retrial customers retry to enter service independently of each other. A small selection of papers assume that the retrial customers themselves form a queue, and only one customer from the retrial queue can attempt to enter at any given time. Retrial queues with exponential retrial times have been extensively studied, but little attention has been paid to retrial queues with general retrial times. In this thesis, we consider four retrial queueing models of the type in which the retrial customers form their own queue. Model I is a type of M/G/1 retrial queue with general retrial times and server subject to breakdowns and repairs. In addition, we allow the customer in service to leave the service position and keep retrying for service until the server has been repaired. After repair, the server is not allowed to begin service on other customers until the current customer (in service) returns from its temporary absence. We say that the server is in "reserved" mode, when the current customer is absent and the server has already been repaired. We define the server to be blocked if the server is busy, under repair or in reserved mode. In Model II, we consider a single unreliable server retrial queue with general retrial times and balking customers. If an arriving primary customer finds the server blocked, the customer either enters a retrial queue with probability p or leaves the system with probability 1 - p. An unsuccessful arriving customer from the retrial queue either returns to its position at the head of the retrial queue with probability q or leaves the system with the probability 1 - q. If the server fails, the customer in service either remains in service with probability r or enters a retrial service orbit with probability 1 - r and keeps returning until the server is repaired. We give a formal description for these two retrial queueing models, with examples. The stability of the system is analyzed by using an embedded Markov chain. We get a necessary and sufficient condition for the ergodicity of the embedded Markov chain. By employing the method of supplementary variables, we describe the state of the system at each point in time. A system of partial differential equations related to the models is derived from a stochastic analysis of the model. The steady state distribution of the system is obtained by means of probability generating functions. In steady state, some performance measures of the system are reported, the distribution of some important performance characteristics in the waiting process are investigated, and the busy period is discussed. In addition, some numerical results are given. Model III consists of a single-server retrial queue with two primary sources and both a retrial queue and retrial orbits. Some results are obtained using matrix analytic methods. Also simulation results are obtained. Model IV consists of a single server system in which the retrial customers form a queue. The service times are discrete. A stability condition and performance measures are presented.Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2005 .W87. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 67-07, Section: B, page: 3883. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2006.