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Social sciences, Psychology, Organizational citizenship, Lebanon, Cultural orientation




This dissertation examines Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) at two levels of theory and within Lebanon. First, a group level conceptualization of this construct (i.e., Collective Citizenship Behavior or CCB ) is theoretically developed based on an isomorphic model of emergence. Second, a qualitative pilot study examines the meaning and applicability of OCB. Results of this study suggest that OCB is a meaningful construct in this Arab context however cultural nuances and possible emic OCB dimensions are identified both in general and in times of war.

Third, a single level quantitative study is conducted where CCB was found to have emerged in 57 of the 62 groups sampled (mean rwg(j) = 0.86). Further, a confirmatory factor analysis suggests that Williams and Anderson's (1991) distinction of OCB-I and OCB-O applies at the group level of analysis (CCB-I and CCB-O). This study also suggests that between group differences in cohesiveness are positively related to CCB-I ( r = 0.79, t (42) = 8.12, p < 0.001).

Finally, a cross-level study relating CCB, OCB, and cultural orientation (i.e., allocentrism versus idiocentrism; Triandis, 1989) is tested using hierarchical linear modeling (Bryk, Radenbush, Cogdon, 1994). The relationships tested and their corresponding results are that: (1) the individual-level relationships between the dimensions of cultural orientation and OCB suggest that where allocentrism is not related to employee OCB in Lebanon; idiocentrism is positively related (γ10 =0.20, se =0.08, t (47) = 2.54, p < 0.05). (2) A cross-level main effect of CCB on OCB was found (γ01 =0.56, se =0.18, t (46) = 3.06, p < 0.01) indicating that individuals will display higher levels of OCB in groups with higher levels of CCB. Finally, (3) a cross-level moderating influence of CCB on the relationship between idiocentrism and OCB was not found suggesting that the level of CCB does not moderate this relationship in this sample.

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