Title

Multigenerational outbreeding effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2014

Publication Title

Genetica

Volume

142

Issue

4

First Page

281

Last Page

293

DOI

10.1007/s10709-014-9774-5

Keywords

Outbreeding depression, Heterosis, Aquaculture, Hybrid, Backcrossing

Abstract

Outbreeding, mating between genetically divergent individuals, may result in negative fitness consequences for offspring via outbreeding depression. Outbreeding effects are of notable concern in salmonid research as outbreeding can have major implications for salmon aquaculture and conservation management. We therefore quantified outbreeding effects in two generations (F-1 hybrids and F-2 backcrossed hybrids) of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) derived from captively-reared purebred lines that had been selectively bred for differential performance based on disease resistance and growth rate. Parental lines were crossed in 2009 to create purebred and reciprocal hybrid crosses (n = 53 families), and in 2010 parental and hybrid crosses were crossed to create purebred and backcrossed hybrid crosses (n = 66 families). Although we found significant genetic divergence between the parental lines (F-ST = 0.130), reciprocal F-1 hybrids showed no evidence of outbreeding depression (hybrid breakdown) or favorable heterosis for weight, length, condition or survival. The F-2 backcrossed hybrids showed no outbreeding depression for a suite of fitness related traits measured from egg to sexually mature adult life stages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of outbreeding effects in salmonids and supports the need for more research to better comprehend the mechanisms driving outbreeding depression.