Title

Hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant isomers in sediments from Detroit River and Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

7-2015

Publication Title

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Volume

95

Issue

1

First Page

31

Last Page

36

DOI

10.1007/s00128-015-1491-y

Keywords

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), Isomers, Sediment, Lake Erie, Detroit River

Abstract

Sediments collected in 2004 from along the Detroit River (n = 19) and across all of Lake Erie (n = 18) were analyzed for isomers of the flame retardant chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediment samples had ΣHBCD concentrations ranging from not detected to 1.6 ng/g d.w. γ-HBCD (56 %–100 % of ΣHBCDs) was the predominate isomer, observed in 7 of 19 samples from the Detroit River and 6 of 18 samples from Lake Erie (all within the western basin). α-HBCD was found in 4 Detroit River and 2 Lake Erie western basin sites, while β-HBCD was only in two Detroit River samples. High ΣHBCD concentrations (>100 ng/g d.w.) were found in two sludge samples from two Windsor, ON, wastewater treatment plants that feed into the Detroit River upstream. HBCD contamination into the Detroit River is a major input vector into Lake Erie and with an apparent sediment dilution effect moving towards the eastern basin.