Hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant isomers in sediments from Detroit River and Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), Isomers, Sediment, Lake Erie, Detroit River
Sediments collected in 2004 from along the Detroit River (n = 19) and across all of Lake Erie (n = 18) were analyzed for isomers of the flame retardant chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediment samples had ΣHBCD concentrations ranging from not detected to 1.6 ng/g d.w. γ-HBCD (56 %–100 % of ΣHBCDs) was the predominate isomer, observed in 7 of 19 samples from the Detroit River and 6 of 18 samples from Lake Erie (all within the western basin). α-HBCD was found in 4 Detroit River and 2 Lake Erie western basin sites, while β-HBCD was only in two Detroit River samples. High ΣHBCD concentrations (>100 ng/g d.w.) were found in two sludge samples from two Windsor, ON, wastewater treatment plants that feed into the Detroit River upstream. HBCD contamination into the Detroit River is a major input vector into Lake Erie and with an apparent sediment dilution effect moving towards the eastern basin.
Letcher, R J.; Zhe, L; Chu, S; Haffner, G D.; Drouillard, Ken G.; Marvin, C H.; and Ciborowski, J JH. (2015). Hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant isomers in sediments from Detroit River and Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 95 (1), 31-36.