Sociology of Sport Journal
Four native sporting practices from different parts of Canada-the Arctic Winter Games and the Northern Games from northern Canada, and the Native Sport and Recreation Program and the All-Indian Sport System from southern Canada--are analyzed within the broader context of race relations in Canada (which differentially shape, and are shaped by, the “practical consciousness” of native peoples). Within these race relations, native participants are facilitated to different degrees in sport. The Inuit and Dene of northern Canada demonstrate an ability to reshape opportunities for sport in ways which address their needs, even when they are not directly in control of the event. Meanwhile, native peoples' in southern Canada, even when they are directly in control of the event, tend to largely reproduce the dominant eurocanadian-derived system of sport, along with government-created definitions of race.
Paraschak, Victoria and Morgan, W.J.. (1997). Variations in race relations: Sporting events for native peoples in Canada. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14 (1), 1-21.