Title

Cynicism in hospital staff nurses: The effect of intention to leave and job change over time

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2015

Publication Title

Journal of Nursing Management

Volume

23

Issue

5

First Page

577

Last Page

587

DOI

10.1111/jonm.12183

Keywords

Employee cynicism, Hierarchical linear modelling, Job change, Longitudinal study, Nurse turnover

Abstract

Aim: To determine whether cynicism changes over time as a function of job change for nurses with high and low intentions to leave. Background: Cynicism develops in reaction to organisational events including leaders' actions and can result in costly passive withdrawal behaviours. Method: Hospital staff nurses (n = 436) completed a survey assessing their intentions to leave the job and cynicism and then completed follow-up surveys assessing cynicism and job change 1 or 2 years later. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine the effect of the interaction between intention to leave, job change and time on cynicism. Result: Nurses who left their hospital and nurses with high initial intention to leave who changed jobs within their hospital reported declining levels of cynicism over 2 years. Cynicism increased for nurses with low intention to leave who remained at the same job and for those who experienced an internal job change despite low intention to leave. Conclusion: For those who desire it, an internal job change may allow for a recalibration of cynicism and increase employee engagement. Implications for nursing management: To attenuate cynicism, hospital leaders need to act and communicate with integrity and be cautious not to arbitrarily change the jobs of nurses with low intention to leave. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.