Omega: Journal of Death and Dying
mortality, awareness, questionnaire, measurement, death
For each of eight literature-identified conceptual dimensions of mortality awareness, questionnaire items were generated, producing 89 in all. 359 participants responded to these items and to questionnaires measuring health attitudes, risk-taking, rebelliousness and demographic variables. Multivariate correlational analyses investigated the underlying structure of the item pool and the construct validity as well as the reliability of the emergent empirically derived subscales. Five components, rather than eight, were identified. Given the item content of each, the associated mortality awareness subscales were labelled as: legacy, fearfulness, acceptance, disempowerment, and disengagement. Each attained an acceptable level of internal reliability. Relationships with other variables supported the construct validity of these empirically derived subscales and more generally of this five-factor model. In conclusion, this new multidimensional measure and model of mortality awareness extends our understanding of this important aspect of human existence and supports a more integrative and optimistic approach to mortality awareness than previously available.
McDermott, Mark R. and Lafreniere, Kathryn. (2015). The Multidimensional Mortality Awareness Measure & Model (MMAMM): Development and validation of a new self-report questionnaire & psychological framework. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 70 (3), 317-341.