Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Current Problems in Cancer




Pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) or thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a glycoprotein encoded by the CPB2 gene and deregulated in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Thrombin binding to thrombomodulin (TM), encoded by THBD, is important for TAFI activation. CPB2 gene expression is influenced by genetic polymorphism and cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10). Our previous results showed that tumor infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CD14+/CD16+) isolated from inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients’ secrete high levels of IL-10. The aim of the present study is to test genetic polymorphism and expression of CPB2 in healthy breast tissues and carcinoma tissues of non-IBC and IBC patients. Furthermore, to investigate whether IL-10 modulates the expression of CPB2 and THBD in vivo and in-vitro. We tested CPB2 Thr325Ile polymorphism using restriction fragment length polymorphism, (RFLP) technique in healthy and carcinoma breast tissues. The mRNA expression of CPB2, THBD and IL10 were assessed by RT-qPCR. Infiltration of CD14+ cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated the correlation between infiltration of CD14+ cells and expression of IL10 and CPB2. Furthermore, we correlated IL10 expression with the expression of both CPB2 and THBD in breast carcinoma tissues. Finally, we validated the role of recombinant IL-10 in regulating the expression of CPB2 and THBD using different breast cancer cell lines. Our results showed that CPB2 genotypes carrying the high-risk allele [Thr/Ile (CT) and Ile/Ile (TT)] were more frequent in both IBC and non-IBC patients compared to control group. CPB2 genotypes did not show any statistical correlation with CPB2 mRNA expression levels or patients’ clinical pathological properties. Interestingly, CPB2 and IL10 expression were significantly higher and positively correlated with the incidence of CD14+ cells in carcinoma tissues of IBC as compared to non-IBC. On the other hand, THBD expression was significantly lower in IBC carcinoma versus non-IBC tissues. Based on molecular subtypes, CPB2 and IL10 expression were significantly higher in triple negative (TN) as compared to hormonal positive (HP) carcinoma tissues of IBC. Moreover, CPB2 expression was positively correlated with presence of lymphovascular invasion and the expression of IL10 in carcinoma tissues of IBC patients. Furthermore, recombinant human IL-10 stimulated CPB2 expression in SUM-149 (IBC cell line) but not in MDA-MB-231 (non-IBC cell line), while there was no significant effect THBD expression. In conclusion, carcinoma tissues of IBC patients are characterized by higher expression of CPB2 and lower expression of THBD. Moreover, CPB2 positively correlates with IL10 mRNA expression, incidence of CD14+ cells and lymphovascular invasion in IBC patients. IL-10 stimulated CPB2 expression in TN-IBC cell line suggests a relevant role of CPB2 in the aggressive phenotype of IBC.


The experiments were conducted at Cancer Biology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt from January 2015 till January 2017. Authors are supported by Avon Foundation-USA (M.M.M.), Cairo University Scientific Research Sector, Giza, Egypt (S.A.I. and M.M.M.), the Windsor Essex Cancer Centre Foundation (M.B.B.), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (M.B.B.).

Included in

Biology Commons