Bridging troubled waters: Biological invasions, transoceanic shipping, and the Laurentian Great Lakes
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Release of contaminated ballast water by transoceanic ships has been implicated in more than 70% of faunal nonindigenous species (NIS) introductions to the Great Lakes since the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959. Contrary to expectation, the apparent invasion rate increased after the initiation of voluntary guidelines in 1989 and mandatory regulations in 1993 for open-ocean ballast water exchange by ships declaring ballast on board (BOB). However, more than 90% of vessels that entered during the 1990s declared no ballast on board (NOBOB) and were not required to exchange ballast, although their tanks contained residual sediments and water that would be discharged in the Great Lakes. Lake Superior receives a disproportionate number of discharges by both BOB and NOBOB ships, yet it has sustained surprisingly few initial invasions. Conversely, the waters connecting Lakes Huron and Erie are an invasion hotspot despite receiving disproportionately few ballast discharges. Other vectors, including canals and accidental release, have contributed NIS to the Great Lakes and may increase in relative importance in the future. Based on our knowledge of NIS previously established in the basin, we have developed a vector assignment protocol to systematically ascertain vectors by which invaders enter the Great Lakes.
Holeck, K. T.; Mills, E. L.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; and Dochoda, M. R., "Bridging troubled waters: Biological invasions, transoceanic shipping, and the Laurentian Great Lakes" (2004). BioScience, 54, 10, 919-929.