Distribution, fecundity, and genetics of Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) (Crustacea, Cladocera) in Lake Ontario
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Journal of Great Lakes Research
Two distinctive forms of cercopagids, first detected in 1998 and identified as Cercopagis pengoi and C. ossiani using taxonomic keys, were observed to co-occur in Lake Ontario. C. ossiani was the predominant form in western Lake Ontario in mid-June 1999 but was then replaced by C. pengoi-like animals over the rest of the season. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that these forms were genetically identical at the ND5 gene and that they are morphologically distinctive forms of C. pengoi. In 1999, Cercopagis reached a maximum abundance of 1,759 individuals/m3 (average abundance = 281 individuals/m3, average biomass = 5.2 mg/m3). In August, Cercopagis biomass was lowest at nearshore and embayment sites and highest at offshore sites. Body length of parthenogenetic females was lower at nearshore (1.16 mm) and embayment (1.19 mm) sites relative to offshore (1.32 mm) ones. Maximal clutch size of parthenogenetic females was 24 embryos per individual. Cercopagis has already spread to Lake Michigan and five Finger Lakes. Although waterfowl may disperse Cercopagis, these invasions likely resulted from human activities.
Makarewicz, J. C.; Grigorovich, I. A.; Mills, E.; Damaske, E.; Cristescu, M. E.; Pearsall, W.; LaVoie, M. J.; Keats, R.; Rudstam, L.; Hebert, P.; Halbritter, H.; Kelly, T.; Matkovich, C.; and MacIsaac, Hugh J., "Distribution, fecundity, and genetics of Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) (Crustacea, Cladocera) in Lake Ontario" (2001). Journal of Great Lakes Research, 27, 1, 19-32.