Invertebrates associated with residual ballast water and sediments of cargo-carrying ships entering the Great Lakes
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Most ships entering the Great Lakes carry cargo and declare "no-ballast-on board" (NOBOB) status. Approximately 250 of these vessels annually load Great Lakes' ballast water when they offload inbound cargo and then discharge this water (which has now mixed with residual water previously present in the tanks) when they load out-bound cargo. This procedure potentially allows nonindigenous species present in ballast residuals to invade the Great Lakes. We collected residual sediment, water, and associated organisms from 38 NOBOB ships entering the Great Lakes. We recorded seven established Great Lakes' nonindigenous species, including some discovered since ballast water exchange was implemented. Occurrences of species not yet invaded indicate that this vector provides further opportunity for invasion. Collectively, NOBOB vessels appear to constitute a greater risk than ballasted vessels, as they make up a greater proportion of the traffic entering the lakes (∼90%), and they do not undergo ballast exchange. Invertebrates in residual water appear to have a greater opportunity for discharge than those in sediments, although most in the water fraction have already invaded this system. Invertebrate numbers in residual freshwater ballast could be dramatically lowered if these vessels flushed with open-ocean water prior to entering the Great Lakes. © 2005 NRC.
Duggan, I. C.; Van Overdijk, C. D.A.; Bailey, S. A.; Jenkins, P. T.; Limén, H.; and MacIsaac, Hugh J., "Invertebrates associated with residual ballast water and sediments of cargo-carrying ships entering the Great Lakes" (2005). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 11, 2463-2474.