Title

Modeling sampling strategies for determination of zooplankton abundance in ballast water

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2017

Publication Title

Marine Pollution Bulletin

Volume

115

Issue

2

First Page

80

Last Page

85

DOI

10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.050

Abstract

Ballast water has been a major source of non-indigenous species introductions. The International Maritime Organization has proposed performance standard that will establish an upper limit for viable organisms in discharged ballast. Here we test different sampling efforts for zooplankton in ballast water on a commercial vessel. We fit different probability density functions to find the most representative and evaluated sampling efforts necessary to achieve error rates (α, β) of < 0.05. Our tests encompassed four seasonal trials and five sample volumes. To estimate error rates, we performed simulations which drew from 1 to 30 replicates of each volume (0.10–3.00m3) for mean densities ranging between 1 and 20 organisms m− 3. Fieldwork and simulations suggested that > 0.5 m3samples had the best accuracy and precision, and that the Poisson distribution fit these communities best. This study provides the first field test of a sampling strategy to assess compliance with the future IMO standard for large vessels. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

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