Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA
Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chu, S.; Henny, C. J.; Kaiser, J. L.; Drouillard, K. G.; Haffner, G. Douglas; and Letcher, R. J., "Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA" (2007). Environmental Pollution, 145, 1, 374-381.