Leaf damage and prey type determine search effort in Orius tristicolor
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Components of search effort were determined for adult females of Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., leaves with either western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) as prey. In the absence of prey, females of O. tristicolor allocated significantly more search time to leaves damaged by western flower thrips than to leaves damaged by twospotted spider mites, artificially damaged leaves or undamaged leaves. In the presence of prey, search time increased with increasing amounts of leaf damage for both prey species, but was not affected by prey species. Amounts of leaf damage or type of prey did not affect giving-up-time. The proportion of predators that successfully located thrips increased with increasing amounts of thrips damage on leaves. Females of O. tristicolor appeared to follow some simple, behavioural rules-of-thumb for allocation of search effort. The presence and type of damage determined the initial effort allocated to searching a leaf. Subsequent effort was determined by successful capture of prey, regardless of species. The implications of these results for application of Orius spp. for biological control are discussed.
Van Laerhoven, Sherah; Gillespie, David R.; and McGregor, Robert R., "Leaf damage and prey type determine search effort in Orius tristicolor" (2000). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 97, 2, 167-174.