Document Type

Article

Publication Date

1-25-2022

Publication Title

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Volume

119

Issue

4

Keywords

Glutamate-ureido-lysine, Molecular imaging, PET, Prostate cancer, PSMA

Abstract

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly overexpressed in most prostate cancers and is clinically visualized using PSMA-specific probes incorporating glutamate-ureido-lysine (GUL). PSMA is effectively absent from certain high-mortality, treatment-resistant subsets of prostate cancers, such as neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC); however, GUL-based PSMA tracers are still reported to have the potential to identify NEPC metastatic tumors. These probes may bind unknown proteins associated with PSMA-suppressed cancers. We have identified the up-regulation of PSMA-like aminopeptidase NAALADaseL and the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in PSMA-suppressed prostate cancers and find that their expression levels inversely correlate with PSMA expression and are associated with GUL-based radiotracer uptake. Furthermore, we identify that NAALADaseL and mGluR expression correlates with a unique cell cycle signature. This provides an opportunity for the future study of the biology of NEPC and potential therapeutic directions. Computationally predicting that GUL-based probes bind well to these targets, we designed and synthesized a fluorescent PSMA tracer to investigate these proteins in vitro, where it shows excellent affinity for PSMA, NAALADaseL, and specific mGluRs associated with poor prognosis.

DOI

10.1073/pnas.2025710119

ISSN

00278424

E-ISSN

10916490

PubMed ID

35064078

Available for download on Monday, July 25, 2022

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