Synthesis of C -linked triazole-containing afgp analogues and their ability to inhibit ice recrystallization

Chantelle J. Capicciotti, University of Ottawa
John F. Trant, University of Ottawa
Mathieu Leclère, University of Ottawa
Robert N. Ben, University of Ottawa


C-Linked antifreeze glycoprotein (C-AFGP) analogues have been shown to have potent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. However, the lengthy synthesis of these compounds is not amenable to large-scale preparation for the many commercial, industrial, and medical applications that exist. This paper describes the synthesis of triazole-containing AFGPs using a convergent solid-phase synthesis (SPS) approach in which multiple carbohydrate derivatives are coupled to a resin-bound synthetic peptide in a single step. Modified "Click" conditions using dry DMF as solvent with catalytic Cu(II), sodium ascorbate, and microwave radiation afforded the synthesis of AFGP analogues 9-12 in 16-54% isolated yield. Compound 9 demonstrated no IRI activity, while compounds 10, 11, and 12 were moderate inhibitors of ice recrystallization. These results suggest that, while the triazole group is a structural mimetic of an amide bond, the amide bond in C-AFGP analogue 3 is an essential structural feature necessary for potent IRI activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.