Author ORCID Identifier : Atiya Razi : George Zhou

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

International Journal of Technology in Education





First Page



Canada, STEM, Integrated STEM-iSTEM, Pedagogy, STEAM

Last Page



The historical and political emergence of STEM has changed the educational paradigm. Researchers, educators, and frontline professionals consider STEM as their savior. However, the ambiguity surrounding STEM and its successors, Integrated STEM education, and STEAM has created confusion for educators and frontline workers about which framework and concept they have to adapt to support their nation in the global financial crisis. Unfortunately, limited research offers insight into the historical, political, and educational development of STEM, iSTEM, and STEAM. This literature review fills this gap by addressing the historical, political, and educational development and uncertainty surrounding STEM, iSTEM, and STEAM. Also, the study explores the purpose, significance, and limitations of STEM, iSTEM, and STEAM individually and current pedagogical practices in this domain. Moreover, this literature review exposes the historical and current Canadian perspective of STEM, iSTEM and STEAM, and Canada's position and response to current global needs. Finding from the study reveal that there is a need for curriculum reform that involves adding STEM, iSTEM, STEAM domain and pedagogical practices in national/provincial curricula; professional development for teachers; support for the teachers and post-secondary institutions to increase STEM, iSTEM, STEAM proficiency and their career interest among students to survive in the global economic race. Furthermore, the study highlights a need for further research and discussion about the STEM, iSTEM, STEAM domain and consensus among scholars on one platform. Moving forward, after STEM →iSTEM→ STEAM, What's next?



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.