Document Type

Article

Publication Date

8-1-2019

Publication Title

Sustainability (Switzerland)

Volume

11

Issue

16

DOI

10.3390/su11164317

Keywords

Bidirectional power flow, Charging station, Distributed Generations (DGs), Microgrids, Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), State of Charge (SoC)

Abstract

© 2019 by the authors. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential of providing frequency regulation due to the adjustment of power charging. Based on the stochastic nature of the daily mileage and the arrival and departure time of Electric Vehicles (EVs), a precise bidirectional charging control strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles by considering the State of Charge (SoC) of the batteries and simultaneous voltage and frequency regulation is presented in this paper. The proposed strategy can control the batteries charge which are connected to the grid, and simultaneously regulate the voltage and frequency of the power grid during the charging time based on the available power when different events occur over a 24-h period. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed control strategy in coordinating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles aggregations and its significant contribution to the peak reduction, as well as power quality improvement. The case study in this paper consists of detailed models of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), diesel generator and wind farm, a generic aggregation of EVs with various charging profiles, and different loads. The test system is simulated and analyzed in MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

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