IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution
The complexity of the design of the protection system using directional over current relays, for modern power distribution systems has been increased due to the looped/meshed operation and the penetration of distributed generations. Finding a reliable and efficient protection scheme that can be easily implemented in these distribution systems is a major challenge. An efficient solution could be the use of artificial intelligent-based multi-agent systems. This paper proposes a novel distributed intelligent based multi-agent protection scheme, which makes use of current-only directional over current relays as agents for detecting and locating faults and isolating faulty areas (lines/busbars) in the distribution systems. All agents can make on-board decisions by exchanging binary data, and do not need a control centre, so the safety of the protection system against one-point failures and cyber-attacks is increased. The proposed scheme does not need to exchange analogue data, and, therefore, it prevents the high bandwidth communication links. Moreover, it is free from the traditional coordination between relays. This scheme is implemented on the IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-30 bus test systems with the distributed generations and several scenarios have been simulated to evaluate its performance.
Ataei, Mohammad Ali; Gitizadeh, Mohsen; Lehtonen, Matti; and Razavi-Far, Roozbeh. (2022). Multi-agent based protection scheme using current-only directional overcurrent relays for looped/meshed distribution systems. IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 16 (8), 1567-1581.