Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Chandler, Krista (Kinesiology)


Health Sciences, Recreation.




Mental imagery is an effective performance enhancing technique for athletes (Driskell, Copper, & Moran, 1994), and therefore has been the topic of extensive investigation in the sport psychology domain. To date, the few studies that have examined imagery across position of play have neglected to examine goaltenders as a distinct position from defense. As such, comparisons can only be made between forwards and defense. The purpose the present study was to examine differences in imagery use and perspective in male ice hockey players across playing position. Participants included 258 competitive male ice hockey players ('n' = 122 forwards, 'n' = 68 defense, 'n' = 68 goaltenders), between the ages of 16 and 29(19.12+-1.96). Two separate MANOVAs revealed significant overall effects for both imagery frequency and perspective across playing position. Univariate follow-up ANOVAs found that goaltenders use significantly more MG-M and CS imagery than forwards and defense. Furthermore, it was found that goaltenders have significantly more clear and vivid images from an internal perspective and an external perspective than forwards, but not defense. Findings from the present study provide sport psychologists with research that can guide the development of more individually tailored imagery interventions for ice hockey athletes.