Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Temple, Anna,


Health Sciences, Public Health.




Despite an overall reduction in the prevalence of smoking in Canada, the rate for adolescent females continues to climb. Simultaneously, morbidity and mortality rates for women, as a result of smoking, are also rising. Theoretically, there appears to be a relationship between low self-concept, low self-esteem, an external locus of control, and cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between adolescent female smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive-comparative design was used to study females, aged 14 to 18 years who were attending secondary schools in a rural Ontario schoolboard. A stratified random sample of 263 students was obtained. Instruments used were the 40-item Children's Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the 82-item Tennessee' Self-Concept Scale: Second Edition. T-tests showed significant differences between the two groups, smokers and nonsmokers, p $<$.001. Smokers, compared to nonsmokers, had lower self-concept, lower self-esteem, and a more external locus of control. Pearson product moment correlation procedures identified significant relationships between smoking and the three study variables, as well as many of the demographic variables. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1997 .F64. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 37-01, page: 0251. Adviser: Anna Temple. Thesis (M.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1997.