Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering




The lifetime of network is one of the most critical issues that have to be considered in the application of wireless sensor networks. The network nodes are battery powered and remain operational as long as they can transmit the sensed data to the processing (sink) node. The main energy consumption of sensor node can be attributed to the task of data transmission to sink node or cluster head. Hence, conserving energy in transmitting data shall maximize functional life of the wireless networks. In this paper we proposed a computationally efficient Average Load Distance (ALD) communication model for forwarding data from sensor to the cluster head. Experiment results indicate that the proposed model can be up to 88% more efficient over direct mode of communication, in respect of per-round maximum energy consumption. An application study shows that ALD can save up to 89% of wireless sensor networks operational cost when compared to direct mode transmission.