Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Thomas, Cheryl,


Psychology, Physiological.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Previous body image research has typically included females, while comparatively fewer studies focus solely on males. These studies have variously concluded that males are satisfied and dissatisfied with their bodies, with many suggesting that the desire for muscularity is related to their dissatisfaction without assessing muscularity levels. Exercise involvement has been linked to body image ratings, with regular exercisers reporting more satisfaction. The present study attempted to clarify the nature and extent of body dissatisfaction in males using 202 undergraduate males recruited from three Michigan-area universities. Males were grouped according to fraternity membership (n = 81), and football participation (n = 61), and participation in neither group (n = 60). Analyses focused on the effects of group membership and exercise levels on body image ratings, which was assessed using the Figure Rating Scale, the Body Esteem Scale, and several muscularity-related questions. No significant differences were found between the satisfaction levels of fraternity members and non fraternity, non-football males, or between football players and non-fraternity, non-football males. Findings indicated widespread dissatisfaction with current appearance, with most males desiring a more muscular upper body and, to a lesser extent, a more muscular lower body. The desire to be leaner in addition to more muscular was commonly reported. Several reasons for this dissatisfaction were identified, and were found to be similar in content among the groups but varied in terms of importance. A majority of the males reported at least some degree of satisfaction with their physical conditioning, physical attractiveness, and upper body strength. Low exercisers were more dissatisfied than regular exercisers on all body image variables except muscularity levels. These findings are discussed in the context of previous findings, and directions for future research are suggested.Dept. of Psychology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2000 .K45. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-03, page: 0789. Adviser: Cheryl Thomas. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2000.