Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name





Psychology, Clinical.


Shore, Douglas,




The present study sought to delineate empirically derived memory subtypes using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT; Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) in a sample of HIV-1 infected adults (N = 154). First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate eight models of the CVLT structure suggested by Wiegner and Donders (1999). A four-factor model, consisting of Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Recall, and Inaccurate Recall appeared to be the best fitting model. Next, variables with the highest factor loadings from the model were entered in a two-stage cluster analysis. Four reliable CVLT clusters or subtypes were identified: Normal, Atypical, Subsyndromal, and Frontal-striatal. Internal and external validation of subtypes demonstrated that clusters were stable and clinically interpretable. The four memory subtypes differed with respect to both level and pattern of CVLT performance. In particular, learning efficiency and delayed recall variables appeared to be the most influential in differentiating between subtypes. The four memory subtypes were meaningfully related to neuropsychological functioning, and to some extent, depressive symptomology. Subtypes did not differ significantly with respect to subjective neurocognitive complaints and markers of HIV-1 disease. The utility of the "subcortical" versus "cortical" dichotomy previously used to characterize memory profiles of various neurological disorders is discussed. Overall, the present findings highlight the heterogeneity of memory profiles in HIV-1 infection and suggest a different interpretation of CVLT profiles than that provided in the manual.Dept. of Psychology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2001 .M87. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 62-10, Section: B, page: 4796. Adviser: Douglas Shore. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2001.