Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Civil and Environmental Engineering


Engineering, Civil.


MacInnis, C.,




Sodium chloride is the main deicing chemical used in winter on highways and sidewalks to melt unwanted ice accumulations. In this study, various salts and salt combinations were studied as alternatives to sodium chloride. Included were: (1) Sodium chloride; (2) Calcium chloride; (3) Potassium acetate (and chloride mixtures); (4) Calcium magnesium acetate (and chloride mixtures); (5) Monosodium phosphate plus chlorides; (6) Monopotassium phosphate plus chlorides; (7) Monocalcium phosphate plus chlorides. Several solution concentrations were used but the base concentration for comparison of the salts and mixtures was 0.5 molality. The salt solutions were used in tests to measure the following properties: (1) Ice melting; (2) Mortar scaling; (3) Metal corrosion. These properties, as well as estimates of cost and possible environmental damage were considered in a criterion function analysis. It was found that monosodium and monopotassium phosphates, in combination with sodium chloride, were the best choice for use as a deicer. A phosphate and sodium chloride mixture in the ratio of 1:9 was found to be the best combination. This phosphate/chloride mixture should be investigated further as a possible alternative to the present day use of sodium chloride.Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1993 .M288. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 32-02, page: 0673. Advisers: C. MacInnis; P. P. Hudec. Thesis (M.A.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1993.