Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Madugula, M. K. S.,


Engineering, Civil.




Single angle bracing members are used in latticed towers with bolted connections. They are usually attached to leg members by one leg only. This causes the load applied to the member to be eccentric with respect to both the principal axes. The major objective of this research is to prepare an analytical model for failure loads under geometric and material nonlinearity. Two hundred and forty cases of steel single angles eccentrically loaded through two bolts at each end in one leg have been analyzed by the finite element model using the ABAQUS ver 5.6 software package. A Newtonian approach with eight-node thick shell reduced integration elements has been employed for the nonlinear solution. The research included the study of the effects of gauge distance, slenderness ratio, and out-of-straightness on the failure loads. In lieu of a pre-processor, program code was written for data input into the FEA package. Several combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane out-of-straightnesses were studied to get the particular combination resulting in the most conservative failure load. With this, the program was then run with different mesh sizes to get the convergence. The program was then incorporated with the desired mesh size. Thereafter, the FEA model developed was validated by comparing with the test results obtained from previous research. Once the model has been successfully validated, it was used to generate tables of compressive resistances using a number of angle sizes with varying gauge distances, slenderness ratios, widths of connected leg, and out-of-straightnesses. The compressive resistance values calculated from the Canadian Standard CSA S37-94 "Antennas, Towers, and Antenna-Supporting Structures" are compared with those obtained from FEA model and found to be conservative. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1998 .N36. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 39-02, page: 0552. Adviser: M. K. S. Madugula. Thesis (M.A.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1998.