Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name





Psychology, Clinical.


Kral, M.




The current study investigates the relationship between aspects of gender role and differences in depression between men and women. Aspects of gender role investigated are instrumentality/expressivity, silencing the self, and private self-consciousness. It was hypothesized that these aspects of gender role orientation will significantly predict vulnerability/invulnerability to depression on a measure of depressive symptomatology. Specifically, it was hypothesized that individuals adopting a more expressive gender role are likely to show higher scores on private self-consciousness, silencing the self, and depression than individuals socialized into a more instrumental gender role. Additionally, the relationship between silencing the self behaviours and private self-consciousness was examined, as this relationship has not been investigated to date. Results supported a negative relationship between instrumentality and depression for men only. This relationship became nonsignificant when self-esteem was controlled. There was a negative relationship between instrumentality and silencing the self even after controlling for sex, suggesting that higher instrumentality is related to less self-silencing in either sex. Analysis of covariance reveals that silencing the self and private self-consciousness have a significant relation to depression when sex differences are analyzed for the influence of gender role characteristics. Further regression analyses indicate that silencing the self serves as a reliable predictor of depressive symptomatology. It is suggested that private self-consciousness may moderate sex differences in depression and have a link to silencing the self through the influence of self-reflectiveness.Dept. of Psychology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1999 .T48. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-03, page: 0783. Adviser: Michael Kral. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1999.