Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Kral, M.


Psychology, Clinical.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


The current study investigates the relationship between aspects of gender role and differences in depression between men and women. Aspects of gender role investigated are instrumentality/expressivity, silencing the self, and private self-consciousness. It was hypothesized that these aspects of gender role orientation will significantly predict vulnerability/invulnerability to depression on a measure of depressive symptomatology. Specifically, it was hypothesized that individuals adopting a more expressive gender role are likely to show higher scores on private self-consciousness, silencing the self, and depression than individuals socialized into a more instrumental gender role. Additionally, the relationship between silencing the self behaviours and private self-consciousness was examined, as this relationship has not been investigated to date. Results supported a negative relationship between instrumentality and depression for men only. This relationship became nonsignificant when self-esteem was controlled. There was a negative relationship between instrumentality and silencing the self even after controlling for sex, suggesting that higher instrumentality is related to less self-silencing in either sex. Analysis of covariance reveals that silencing the self and private self-consciousness have a significant relation to depression when sex differences are analyzed for the influence of gender role characteristics. Further regression analyses indicate that silencing the self serves as a reliable predictor of depressive symptomatology. It is suggested that private self-consciousness may moderate sex differences in depression and have a link to silencing the self through the influence of self-reflectiveness.Dept. of Psychology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1999 .T48. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-03, page: 0783. Adviser: Michael Kral. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1999.