Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Bewtra, J. K.,


Engineering, Sanitary and Municipal.




Upflow anaerobic fixed film reactor (UAFFR) dominated with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is very effective in treating wastewater containing high concentration of heavy metals. SRB are able to reduce sulfates to sulfides. Therefore, maximizing the sulfide production is important in optimizing filter performance. The maximum sulfide production was achieved at a lactate (organic source) loading of 6 kg/d/m3 and a phosphate addition of 0.18 g/L. The overall average consumptive ratio of the filter is 1.2, which indicates that 17% of organic used is for cell synthesis, and 83% for reduction and deoxygenation. The filter is able to remove the total metals with efficiencies of: 60%-70% for Pb; 20%-70% for Cd; 80% for Cr; and 90% for Cu. The dissolved metal removal efficiencies are: 80% up to 45 mg/L Cr; $>$90% up to 18 mg/L Pb; $>$90% up to 400 mg/L Cu; and 99% up to 550 mg/L Cd. The behaviour of the Control Reactor indicates that sulfide precipitation is not the only mechanism in removing the dissolved heavy metals in the filter. Hydroxide and carbonate precipitations and chelations by organic and inorganic ligands are the other processes. Therefore, both the bacterial and non-bacterial dissolved metal removals occur in the filters. The bacterial dissolved metal removals include sulfide and carbonate precipitations. The bacterial metal removal efficiencies are: 80% Cu, 80% Cd and 60% Or. The maximum limits of the heavy metal concentrations which the filter can treat satisfactorily without affecting SRB's growth are: 60 mg/L Cu, 550 mg/L Cd and 45 mg/L Cr. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)Dept. of Environmental Engineering. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1993 .W553. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 32-02, page: 0714. Advisers: J. K. Bewtra; N. Biswas. Thesis (M.A.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1993.