Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name



Mechanical, Automotive, and Materials Engineering

First Advisor

North, W. P. T.,


Engineering, Mechanical.




With an explosion of technology occurring, optomechatronics is proposed as a general engineering area for the coming century. Optomechatronics is the integration of optical, mechanical, electrical, and other traditional engineering disciplines with microelectronics in order to unify machine and information technology. An optomechatronic product is a machine with knowledge and intelligence, which can process information and take action in response to human needs, other machines and the environment. Future trends in optomechatronic products will see smaller, swifter, and smarter systems. Optomechatronics provides a vision for engineers to meet the challenge of intellectural broadness in technology. Retroreflective gratin metrology is viewed as an example to illustrate optomechatronics. Retroreflective grating metrology is a new optical technique for measuring the derivative and contour of quasi flat and reflective surfaces. It is based on a retroreflective process in which the retroreflective screw is very efficient in returning light to the light source. Uniform gratings can be produced in the optical process by attachment painting, projection, moire methods, etc. The gratings are modulated in phase by the surface under test. A efficient-and simple mathematical model can relate the phase information in the deformed gratings to the derivative of the surface at each point A variety of DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) and PST (Phase shifting Technology) algorithms can be used to extract the phase information in the deformed gratings. The contour of the surface is found by integration. Experiments show that the method can detect slope related defects smaller than 10 microns, very efficiently. The retroreflective grating metrology has been used to measure the 3D surface waviness on calibrated artifacts. In order to eliminate the effect of the illumination angle, a nonlinear equation was developed explicitly to calculate the slope from the phase information. The optical configuration for projection gratings technique was used for the measurement The three-step PST algorithm was applied to analyze the grating image Three calibrated artifacts with different wave amplitude were tested. The experiments show that the retroreflective metrology can recover the contour and amplitude of the 3D surface waviness on the standard artifacts successfully. Retroreflective grating metrology is one of the most precise among the existing optical methods. This represents a new optical technique for surface measurement, which is efficient, practical and cost-effective compared to other existing optical methods such as grids, Moire fringes, optical triangulation, and so on. This technology can be developed for machine vision and industrial application in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDTE).Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive, and Materials Engineering. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2000 .Z53. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 61-09, Section: B, page: 4951. Adviser: W. P. T. North. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2000.