Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name





Psychology, Clinical.




The aim of the present study was to examine why some gamblers experience shifts in motivational readiness to change their gambling practices while others do not. This cross-sectional study of gamblers at different points across the spectrum of change attempted to extend the Addicted-self model of recovery to the study of problem gambling by examining the associations of perceived control and negative outcome expectancy with gamblers' readiness to change. The present study also investigated the interaction of these two constructs in predicting gamblers' choice of change goals. To facilitate this investigation, the present study sought to validate newly-developed measures of perceived control over gambling (PCOG) and negative gambling outcome expectancies (NGOE). Two hundred twenty eight community-dwelling problem gamblers were recruited for the study. Participants consisted of three subsets of gamblers: (i) gamblers in pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation, (ii) gamblers in action pursuing abstinence as their change goal, and (iii) gamblers in action pursuing moderation as their change goal. Abstainers were found to have the lowest perceived control over gambling and the highest negative gambling outcome expectancies compared to the other two groups. Moderators did not differ from pre-changers in perceived control or negative outcome expectancy. Both perceived control over gambling and negative gambling outcome expectancy predicted motivational readiness to change scores. Perceived control and negative outcome expectancy also mediated the relation between negative gambling consequences and motivational readiness to change. A structural equation model showed support for an addicted-self concept as an underlying latent construct mediating the behaviour change process. Clinical implications of perceived control over gambling and negative gambling outcome expectancy as targets for therapeutic interventions as well as useful indices for developing treatment-client matching guidelines are discussed.Dept. of Philosophy. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2005 .J49. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 66-11, Section: B, page: 6275. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2005.