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This study was designed to investigate students' conceptualization of effort and its relationship to gender and achievement. Seventy-six intermediate students (aged 12--14) responded to a question that elicited statements describing students' perception of effort. The statements were categorized under three main effort categories: Actions, Beliefs and Cognition. Boys used significantly more statements classified as "Actions" than girls and there was a tendency for girls to use more of the "Beliefs" descriptors. No gender differences were found for the "Cognition" category. There was only one significant correlation between effort categories and achievement: The frequency of "Cognition" statements was positively related to achievement. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-03, page: 0552. Adviser: E. Kuendiger. Thesis (M.Ed.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2000.
Cooper, Debra Ann., "Students' perceptions of effort in mathematics." (2000). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 3627.