Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Andrews, D.


Applied Mechanics.




The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the leg tissue masses (bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and wobbling mass (WM)), and muscle activation levels to the response of the tibia following heel impacts similar to those experienced during running. A human pendulum was used to deliver controlled impacts to the dominant foot of 20 males and 20 females (mean age 23.8 +/- 2.6 years, body mass 71.8 +/- 16.9 kg, and height 1.7 +/- 0.1 m). Individual tissue masses were determined through use of anthropometric prediction equations. External impact forces, tibial accelerations, and tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius activation levels were measured simultaneously with a vertically erected force plate, uniaxial skin mounted accelerometer, and surface EMG electrodes, respectively. Simple linear regression was used to quantify the contribution to the tibial response parameters made by the magnitude of the individual leg tissue masses and muscle activation levels. The magnitudes of the leg tissue masses did not account for much variation in the tibial response to impact, and only partial support was found for the role of leg muscular activation levels. As a result, mechanical coupling between the rigid and soft tissue masses, and thickness of the heel fat pad are likely very important in explaining tibial response following heel impact, and future work addressing this seems warranted. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2003 .H65. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 42-03, page: 0955. Adviser: David Andrews. Thesis (M.H.K.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2003.