Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name





Psychology, Social.




The purpose of the current study was to explore the diverse racial identities of biracial individuals; the relationship between identity and several individual, interpersonal, and structural factors; and the impact identity may have on psychological well-being and multicultural effectiveness. To examine the racial identity of biracial individuals in North America, 236 individuals living in Canada or the United States of White and non-White racial backgrounds completed an internet survey. Based on their indication of how they identified in their private thoughts, participants were placed in one of four private identity categories: single non-White identity (SNWI), single White identity (SWI), dual identity (DI), or non-racial identity (NRI). Based on their responses to three public identity questions, participants were placed in one of two public identity categories: inconsistent identity, or consistent identity. Compared to the other three identity groups, those with a SNWI had a more inconsistent identity, believed they look more like their non-White group, had greater cultural experience with their non-White group, had a greater non-White social network, and more strongly believed their society is closed to racial diversity. Private identity was not related to psychological well-being, but those who perceived their society as more closed to racial diversity had lower psychological well-being than those who believed their society was more open. Those with a SNWI were also more multiculturally effective than those with a SWI or NRI. As compared to those with a consistent identity, those with an inconsistent identity believed they looked less like their White group, had greater cultural experience with their non-White group, believed their society was more closed to racial diversity, were higher on measures of open-mindedness and cultural empathy, and lower on measures of emotional stability.Dept. of Psychology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2006 .M68. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 67-07, Section: B, page: 4160. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2006.