Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Weir, Patricia,


Health Sciences, Human Development.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Summary KR is a feedback scheduling method of withholding feedback for a set number of trials in a block then presenting feedback for each trial via a graphical presentation. The feedback presented represents the difference between the actual movement and the goal of the task. Average KR is an average of the error values over the prescribed trials presented as a single graphical value. The present study examined a multifaceted approach to understanding the summary effect. Subjects received feedback after every fifth trial in acquisition for a feedback presentation of 18%. Subjects either received information about the last 5, 10, or 15 trials presented as an average or summary presentation. Subjects performed a simple ball positioning task with a 1000 ms goal movement time. For the acquisition phase the group receiving KR following every trial was found to have significantly lower $\vert$CE$\vert$ values compared to all the other conditions for only the first three blocks of acquisition. A block effect was also reported with groups becoming more consistent and accurate with practice. Subjects maintained significant consistency over the 10 minute and the 2 day retention intervals. Surprisingly, further ANOVA's of the independent variables excluding the group receiving KR after every trial, revealed the summary condition to be more consistent than the average condition in acquisition performance. Further ANOVA's on both retention tests yielded no significant effects of $\vert$CE$\vert$ or VE. The lack of significant effects of the independent variables are discussed in terms of the effects of task, number of trials summarized/averaged, presentation frequency, type of feedback, and the guidance hypothesis. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)Dept. of Kinesiology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1995 .P37. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 34-06, page: 2337. Adviser: Patricia Weir. Thesis (M.H.K.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1996.