Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Rodgers, Wendy,


Education, Physical.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Whereas industrial and organizational psychologists have extensively researched goal setting, studies of the effects of goal setting in athletics are few and far between. Although a few investigators have studied the effects of goal setting on performance in athletics (e.g. Weinberg, Bruya, Jackson, & Garland, 1987), few studies have been documented from a "real" athletic setting. The present study examines the effect of three methods of goal setting on a number of goal attributes. These goal attributes--commitment, influence, acceptance, clarity, certainty and satisfaction have been identified as being important in goal setting (Brawley, Carron & Widmeyer, 1991). Sixty-seven (67) members of the University of Windsor track and field team were randomly placed into three conditions--assigned, participative and self-set. The coaches involved in the study were trained and provided scripts for each experimental condition. This was necessary to ensure that coaches were consistent in creating each experimental condition. The athletes in the assigned condition were assigned goals by their respective coach, athletes in the participative condition were involved in participative goal setting between coach and athlete and those in the self-set condition set their own goals. The goal setting process in all three conditions involved establishing practice goals, seasonal goals (exact times, heights or distances for the 1993 indoor season), competition goals (rankings, medals, place finish at competitions) and long-term goals. The athletes' perceptions of the participativeness of the three conditions showed that they were significantly different from each other. Results showed few differences between the conditions on the goal attributes, suggesting that all three goal-setting methods are equally effective. The study raises issues for coaching and interventions in the area of goal setting.Dept. of Kinesiology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1993 .F34. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 32-06, page: 1510. Adviser: Wendy Rodgers. Thesis (M.H.K.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1993.