Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Blair, J. A.





Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


This thesis addresses whether it is a mistake to limit the traditional conception of argument to that which is explicitly verbalized. Frans H. Van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst's Pragma-Dialectical theory of argumentation (1984, 1992, 1993) is used as an exemplar of the verbal-oriented approach, since it is recognized as being influential in the field of argumentation. A challenge is presented to the theory by introducing and discussing two modes of argumentation that tend to divert from the use of language, specifically the visual and the emotional. A "visual argument" gets its strength primarily from a visual image. A visual argument makes a claim of some sort and has a reason or reasons for that claim. Plus, the argument is both communicated to an audience and is linguistically explicable. Four types of emotional argumentation are discussed. They are: (1) emotions used to express an argument, (2) an emotion used as a reason for an argumentative claim, (3) an arguer appealing to the emotions of an audience, and (4) an arguer inducing an emotion in her audience. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)