Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Sid-Ahmed, M. A.,


Health Sciences, Dentistry.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


A new automatic shape recognition algorithm has been developed to extract craniofacial landmarks from lateral skull x-rays (cephalograms). The locations of these landmarks are used by orthodontists in what is referred to as a cephalometric evaluation. The evaluation assists in the diagnosis of anomalies and in the monitoring of treatments. The algorithm is based on grey-scale mathematical morphology. A statistical approach with training was used to overcome subtle differences in skeletal topographies. Decomposition was used to desensitize the algorithm to size differences. Training was also used to minimize the search window sizes for improving speed and minimizing the detection of false targets. A system was trained to locate 20 landmarks. Test on 40 x-rays showed on average, 88% of the landmarks were located to within an acceptable accuracy of 2mm.Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1991 .C373. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 53-09, Section: B, page: 4578. Supervisor: M. A. Sid-Ahmed. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1991.