Frequency of imagery use in sport in male youth hockey players

Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis





Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


The primary purpose of the present study was to examine how skill level (competitive vs. recreational) impacts the frequency of imagery use in young athletes. Participants were 130 Pee Wee male youth hockey players (11-12 years old) from the various teams in the Blue Water Hockey League. Athletes were administered the SIQ-C (Hall et al., 2005) following one of their scheduled practices. The results of a discriminant function analysis revealed no significant differences on the athletes' use of imagery based on group membership (competitive vs. recreational). Results did indicate, however, that all athletes, regardless of competitive level, used all five functions of imagery (CS, CG, MS, MG-M, & MG-A). Further univariate ANOVA's indicated significant differences with respect to imagery use based on both the athletes' position played as well the coaches' encouragement of imagery use. Reasons for these findings are discussed as well as limitations and future directions.