Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Sociology and Anthropology


Journalism, Communication, Criminology



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


This thesis contributes to cultural criminology and media studies literature by examining how the mainstream media textually and visually constructed the Toronto G20 protests, protesters and police leading up to, during and after the summit. In analyzing 300 news articles, this thesis explores the media's use of the protest paradigm, and theorizes the potential impact of citizen journalism on the mainstream media's constructions. This thesis also explores how media constructions used both text and images. The results of this study indicate that media constructions of protests change overtime and are occasionally receptive to new evidence; the media does not always entirely adhere to the protest paradigm. Additionally, citizen journalism can influence media constructions, however, the existence of this material alone does not guarantee that it will be incorporated into media reports--the hierarchy of credibility and the media's role as a gatekeeper seems to partially remain.