Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name





Social sciences, Psychology, Organizational citizenship, Lebanon, Cultural orientation




This dissertation examines Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) at two levels of theory and within Lebanon. First, a group level conceptualization of this construct (i.e., Collective Citizenship Behavior or CCB ) is theoretically developed based on an isomorphic model of emergence. Second, a qualitative pilot study examines the meaning and applicability of OCB. Results of this study suggest that OCB is a meaningful construct in this Arab context however cultural nuances and possible emic OCB dimensions are identified both in general and in times of war.

Third, a single level quantitative study is conducted where CCB was found to have emerged in 57 of the 62 groups sampled (mean rwg(j) = 0.86). Further, a confirmatory factor analysis suggests that Williams and Anderson's (1991) distinction of OCB-I and OCB-O applies at the group level of analysis (CCB-I and CCB-O). This study also suggests that between group differences in cohesiveness are positively related to CCB-I ( r = 0.79, t (42) = 8.12, p < 0.001).

Finally, a cross-level study relating CCB, OCB, and cultural orientation (i.e., allocentrism versus idiocentrism; Triandis, 1989) is tested using hierarchical linear modeling (Bryk, Radenbush, Cogdon, 1994). The relationships tested and their corresponding results are that: (1) the individual-level relationships between the dimensions of cultural orientation and OCB suggest that where allocentrism is not related to employee OCB in Lebanon; idiocentrism is positively related (γ10 =0.20, se =0.08, t (47) = 2.54, p < 0.05). (2) A cross-level main effect of CCB on OCB was found (γ01 =0.56, se =0.18, t (46) = 3.06, p < 0.01) indicating that individuals will display higher levels of OCB in groups with higher levels of CCB. Finally, (3) a cross-level moderating influence of CCB on the relationship between idiocentrism and OCB was not found suggesting that the level of CCB does not moderate this relationship in this sample.