Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Sylvia Voelker


Externalizing Symptoms, Internalizing Symptoms, Parenting, Positive Parenting Program, Triple P



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) is an evidence-based parent management training program based on social learning theory principles (Sanders, 2012). Parents are taught parenting skills in eight weekly sessions with a trained facilitator. This study evaluated parent and child outcomes for level 4 Group and level 4 Group-Teen Triple P in community (n = 152) and clinic (n = 89) samples. Comparison of standard pre- and post-intervention measures revealed significant improvements in both child emotional and behavioural symptoms, and parenting skills and confidence. There was no differential treatment effect for children presenting with clinical levels of externalizing symptoms only (n = 19) compared to those presenting with comorbid internalizing and externalizing symptoms (n = 25). No significant differences were found in demographic variables or initial child behaviour ratings among parents who dropped out of the program prematurely compared to those who completed the program. Results are discussed in terms of implications for practice and theory.

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