Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Paraschak, Victoria


Social sciences, Duality of structure, Lingerie football, Media, Tackle football, Women's sport



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


I explored how Canadian female football players were shaping football and being shaped by their participation in the sport using a duality of structure framework. Through ten semi-structured interviews with two administrators and four players in the Western Women's Canadian Football League (WWCFL) and four players in the Legends Football League (LFL) Canada, I examined the leagues' structures and participants' experiences in their leagues. I also analyzed media representations in 230 newspaper articles. Results indicated that the leagues' divergent purposes as well as hegemonic understandings of football differently shaped their structures and consequently players' experiences and media representations. The WWCFL's close alignment with men's football and the LFL's divergence, especially in terms of its uniform, contributed to these differences, although all players shared an enjoyment of physicality, supportive teammates, and extensive volunteer expectations. WWCFL players had many opportunities to shape their league, while opportunities for LFL players were extremely limited.