A biomechanical investigation of female arm strength.

Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name





Health Sciences, Recreation.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


The purpose of the current study was to measure strength and develop regression equations that will predict the maximal capabilities for hand forces exerted in a variety of directions and positions. A biomechanical methodology was utilized to examine 29 non-skilled female subjects exerting maximal forces against a simulation device. Combinations of three heights (head height, shoulder height, waist height), three angles (0°, 45°, and 90° to sagittal shoulder plane), and two reaches (40% and 80% of full reach) were tested for maximal force in six directions (push forward, pull backward, push up, push down, medial, lateral). Using the force data, 12 regression equations were developed to predict average maximum force for the working female population. For each direction, an equation was developed for exertions ≥ shoulder height and for exertions ≤ shoulder height. These equations use inputs of various combinations of distance in the vertical, horizontal and lateral direction from the shoulder. The regression equations resulted in r2 values ranging from 86.0% (lateral) to 98.9% (medial) and RMS errors ranging from 8.0% (push down) to 3.0% (medial). With a mean r 2 of 94.6% and RMS %Error of 5.4%, the equations produced very accurate predictions. Using a correction factor of 0.808, each equation can be used to predict the maximum recommended force for 75th percentile of females. In addition to the force results, electromyography results provided information on muscle activity during the exertions in all postures. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)Dept. of Kinesiology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2006 .F74. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 45-01, page: 0305. Thesis (M.H.K.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2006.