Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Xu, Xiaohong


ambient VOCs, CMB, PMF, and PCA, concentration, receptor models, source contributions, Windsor, Ontario



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Chemical Mass Balance (CMB), Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied to investigate the major sources of Windsor ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The annual average total VOC concentrations declined from 2005 to 2006. Summer concentrations were higher than winter in both years. All three models results indicated that vehicle-related sources were the major contributors regardless of season in both years. Other major sources included Commercial Natural Gas and Industrial Refinery in winter; Architectural Coatings in summer. PMF provided profiles other than the ten sources for CMB: Adhesive & Sealant Coatings. PCA provided additional emitters: Adhesive and Sealant Coatings and Auto Paintings. Spatial patterns of source contribution indicated that there was a high correlation between the high All Vehicle, Industrial Refinery, and Commercial Natural Gas emissions with the Huron Church Road measurements.