Plastic Deformation and Surface Damage Mechanisms during Hot-forming of Al and Mg Alloy Sheets
Material transfer and adhesion to die surface are major tribological issues encountered during hot-forming of aluminum and magnesium alloys, reducing process efficiency. This study aimed at understanding the tribological contact interface generated between material and die surface under dynamic conditions created by simultaneous effect of temperature and strain rate. Micromechanisms of plastic deformation occurring under simulated hot-forming conditions were identified and related to the coefficient of friction (COF). Sliding contact experiments were done using specially designed tribometer (operating temperature: 25 to 545°C, strain rate: 10
). COF of AA5083(Al-4.5%Mg-0.7%Mn) and AZ31(Mg-3%Al-0.7%Zn) alloys were measured during their plastic deformation by the simultaneous effect of temperature and strain rate. The as received and plastically deformed surfaces were characterized using optical interferometry, SEM, FIB and TEM. Additionally, the force required to break the asperity junction formed at the first contact, or junction strength, was measured for both materials at different temperatures. Deformation mechanisms identified for AA5083 in the temperature range of 420 to 545°C and strain rate range of 5×10
included diffusional flow, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and solute drag (SD) creep. Friction maps outlining general relationships between tribological behaviour and micromechanisms controlling deformation under a set of temperature, strain and strain rate were developed. GBS induced high surface roughness, resulting in high COF. Low average roughness and retention of strength reduced COF in SD region. Dynamic recrystallization was an additional factor controlling material transfer in magnesium AZ31 alloy. Changes in oxide layer morphology were established based on the microstructural characterization of sample's surface and subsurface. In AA5083 alloy, crack formation at temperatures 500°C were found in the magnesium rich surface oxide. Magnesium rich surface oxide reduced COF, and low COF was found in the material having high magnesium. AZ31 alloy always showed lower COF compared to AA5083. This was confirmed by junction strength experiment where adhesion strength was found to be low in high magnesium content material. Therefore, this investigation on the plastic deformation and surface damage mechanism, and their relation with the tribological behaviour provided better understanding of the hot-forming process.