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attentional focus, constrained action hypothesis, external focus of attention, Focus of attention, internal focus of attention
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A systematic search of English articles in electronic databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL, Proquest Nursing and Allied Health Source, PsychINFO, and SPORTDiscus) was implemented using search terms (i.e. attentional focus, focus of attention, motor learning, motor performance, external foc*, internal foc*, constrained action hypothesis, instructions, movement effects, and body movements).Three separate meta-analyses yielded Hedge’s gs of adopting an external focus relative to an internal focus in the acquisition of tasks of 0.409 (n = 64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.295-0.522), in retention of learning of 0.569 (n = 28; 95% CI, 0.404-0.733), and in transfer of learning of 0.556 (n = 15; 95% CI, 0.233-0.879). Heterogeneity was observed for the acquisition and transfer phases, I2 = 59.984 and 58.815, respectively. Subgroup analyses between discrete and continuous task dimensions revealed heterogeneity only in the acquisition phase, p = 0.031. R2 index for acquisition phase revealed R2 < 0.0.
Phalavong, Benjamin Franklin, "A task constraint framework for the attentional focus effect in sensorimotor tasks: A systematic review and meta-analyses" (2015). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 5478.