Towards More Reliable MAC and PHY Layer Designs for High QoS Achievements for Safety Messaging in DSRC Systems
Broadcast communications are widely proposed for safety messaging. In the case of highway vehicular networks and constantly communicating safety messages inevitably cause the well-known hidden terminal problem. Three existing leading repetition-based broadcasting protocols have shown to meet the reliability and delay requirements for Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) safety systems. We propose a quantitative model to evaluate the quality of service (QoS) of DSRC systems using these three leading repetition-based protocols under hidden terminals and highway scenarios. The performance of our model is analyzed by means of probability of success and delay performances. We also present three new Medium Access Control (MAC) layer design protocols for safety messaging applications. The main protocol we introduce is known as Passive Cooperative Collision Warning (PCCW) protocol for repetition based vehicular safety message reception reliability improvement in DSRC. The PCCW protocol and jointly proposed Enhanced-PCCW (EPCCW) and emergency-PCCW (ePCCW) protocols variants can work on top of existing repetition protocols for serving as a passive collision warning mechanism in the MAC Layer. A full analytical derivation of the relative reliability and delay performances for all three PCCW, EPCCW and ePCCW protocols are provided, serving as intuitive performance evaluators. EPCCW employs the physical (PHY) layer to create sub-slots for the purpose of further increasing reliability by both avoiding and minimizing probability of collision at slots that would nominally fail. Analytical and simulation results of PCCW and EPCCW agree, and show a significant reduction in message failure rate versus the leading repetition protocols, especially under high collision scenarios up to 40% at optimal, and 80% at higher repetitions. Additionally, an improvement in average timeslots delay is observed, which facilitates improved vehicular safety messaging. ePCCW is particularly useful for emergency vehicle (EV) communications. This enhancement makes meeting stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements particularly prevalent in safety applications of DSRC systems. ePCCW show up to 77% reliability improvement relative to a leading alternative is realized. Additionally, the proposed system is shown to have a decreased average timeslots delay that is well within acceptable delay threshold, and provides the best reliability in its class, which is key to safety messaging. In all our simulation results, we use our accurate Orthogonal Frequency Division (OFDM) MAC and physical (PHY) layer designs. The PHY layer simulator is a new object-oriented simulation environment, and is achieved using high-level design, parallelism and usability for the simulation environment. A high-level design and GUI layouts of the proposed simulator is shown in details. This can serve as a learning/research tool for students or practiced professionals to investigate particular designs. In addition, we provide a simple technique to implement simulation partitioning for increased parallel performance of reconfigurable object-oriented OFDM simulators. This simple technique applies to scenarios where there is disproportionate simulation duration between different OFDM configurations. It is shown to decrease total simulation time considerably. Additionally, we present a study on different demapping schemes at the PHY level. We propose the use of a linear demapper over a recently proposed non-linear demapper. The study is also presented under different decoding schemes of DSRC receivers. We also propose the use of equalization concepts in frequency domain that exploit the frequency domain channel matrix to combat inter-carrier interference (ICI) instead of inter-symbol interference (ISI) in DSRC systems. It is shown that the DSRC system with the frequency-domain equalization scheme achieves a considerable performance enhancement compared to both the conventional and the Viterbi-aided channel estimation schemes that try to combat ISI in terms of both Packet Error Rate (PER) and Bit Error Rate (BER) at relatively high and low velocities.