Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Kemal Tepe


Applied sciences, Game theory, Mobile ad hoc networks, Routing




Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are becoming popular as a means of providing communication among a group of people. Because of self-configuring and self-organizing characteristics, MANETs can be deployed quickly. There is no infrastructure defined in the network, therefore all of the participating nodes relay packets for other nodes and perform routing if necessary. Because of the limitations in wireless transmission range, communication links could be multi-hop. Routing protocol is the most important element of MANET. Routing protocols for MANET can broadly be classified as proactive routing protocol and reactive routing protocol. In proactive routing protocols like Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV), mobile nodes periodically exchange routing information among themselves. Hence proactive routing protocols generate high overhead messages in the network. On the other hand, reactive routing protocols like Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) work on-demand. Hence reactive routing protocols generate fewer number of overhead messages in the network compared to proactive routing protocols. But reactive routing protocols use a global search mechanism called "flooding" during the route discovery process. By "flooding" mechanism a source node can discover multiple routes to a destination. "Flooding" generates a large number of overhead packets in the network and is the root cause of scaling problem of reactive routing protocols. Hierarchical Dynamic Source Routing (HDSR) protocol has been proposed in this dissertation to solve that scaling problem. The DSR protocol has been modified and optimized to implement HDSR protocol. HDSR protocol reduces the "flooding" problem of reactive routing protocols by introducing hierarchy among nodes. Two game theoretic models, Forwarding Dilemma Game (FDG) and Forwarding Game Routing Protocol (FGRP), is proposed to minimize the 'flooding' effect by restricting nodes that should participate in route discovery process based on their status. Both FDG and FGRP protocols reduce overhead packet and improve network performances in terms of delay packet delivery ratio and throughput. Both protocols were implemented in AODV and the resulting protocol outperformed AODV in our NS-2 simulations. A thorough connectivity analysis was also performed for FDG and FGRP to ensure that these protocols do not introduce disconnectivity. Surprisingly, both FDG and FGRP showed better connectivity compared to AODV in moderate to high node density networks.