Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Milne, Kevin


females, participation, sport, testosterone




Introduction: Females are currently participating in sport at a lower rate than males. It has been determined that girls who participate in sport gain many advantages (i.e. better bone health, greater cardio-respiratory fitness, a better quality of life). Therefore, it’s important to determine why some females choose to continue sport participation, while others do not. Objective: To determine if 2DR and salivary testosterone (sT) are correlates of sport participation. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of resting and indirect prenatal androgen concentrations (i.e. second to fourth digit ratios) were obtained from a sample of 18-30y females. Participant demographic (via questionnaire), anthropometric, behavioural (via questionnaire), and retrospective sport participation (via questionnaire) information were collected on one occasion and saliva was collected on two occasions. Results: 2DR ratio (r = -0.650, p = 0.538) was not significantly correlated with total sport participation, nor was sT (r = 0.094, p = 0.387). Secondary analysis revealed significant correlations between sport participation and max hand grip (r=.406, p = 0.000), sport competitiveness (Sport Orientation Questionnaire) (r = 0.475, p = 0.000) and Sport Aggression (Scale of Children’s Action Tendencies in Sport) (r = 0.240, p = 0.021). Conclusion: It does not appear that androgens (whether prenatally or current) have an impact on female sport participation. Given that females participate in sport at lower rates than males, and that sport provides multiple social and health advantages, continuing to determine what factors influence sport participation is necessary.